Burn related infections are challenging conditions to manage and can cause several complications entailing a complicated treatment. In this study infection in burn patients hospitalized in burn intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital is investigated.
This retrospective study was conducted between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2020 in burn ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Patients with an ICU stay less than 48 hours and survival less than 72 hours were not included in the study. The demographic and clinical data as well as referral status, the type of infections and the isolated microorganisms, antibiotics used for prophylaxis, outcomes and the mortality rate are evaluated retrospectively from patient files and the hospital registries.
A total of 311 patients were included in our study cohort with a mean age of 22.11±20.9 years. The burned total body surface area was 28.07±17.1 and abbreviated burn severity index was 5.76±2.3. There were 155 patients with 283 infections and the infection rate was 45.8 per 1000 patient days. The most commonly isolated microorganisms were Candida species in blood-stream and urinary tract infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in burn wound infections. Most of the deaths (86.7%) occurred in patients with infections.
In major burns strict adherence to isolation procedures, avoiding delays in referrals, early excision and early wound closure are important measures to reduce infections. Each burn center should develop appropriate antibiotic strategies due to their culture results and prophylaxis with broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided.